Ans: The Department of Health has arranged a hepatitis A vaccination programme for MSM. Two doses of hepatitis A vaccines would be given at least 6 months apart to provide a life-long protection.
Please go to the designed Social Hygiene Clinics for registration and arrangement of vaccination. Prior appointment is not required. (Registration is closed an hour before the end of each session)
Ans: No. AIDS stands for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. It is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).
HIV attacks and destroys CD4 cells, the disease-fighting cells of the immune system. As the immune system is seriously damaged, the infected person is more vulnerable to certain cancers and a wide range of infections. These types of infections are known as opportunistic infections because they take advantage of a person's weakened immune system. When that happens, HIV infection has progressed to its final stage which is commonly known as AIDS.
Ans: The only way to know if you're infected with HIV is to get tested. Most infected people do not have any symptoms at all for years and continue to look normal and healthy. Some may have flu-like symptoms (often described as "the worst flu ever") 2 to 4 weeks after exposure. Symptoms can include: fever, tiredness, sore throat, rash, diarrhoea and swollen glands. These symptoms may last for a few days to weeks. During this time (window period), the infection may not show up on an HIV antibody test, but the person is highly infectious and can spread the virus to others. You cannot tell whether a person has been infected by his appearance, the only way to know is to get tested.
Ans: HIV is passed on through infected body fluids such as blood, semen (including pre-cum), rectal and vaginal secretions. It may be passed on from an HIV infected person to another by sexual contact (including oral and anal sex) and blood contact (e.g. needle sharing). In Hong Kong, more than 75% of cases are infected through sexual contact and about half of the new cases reported in recent years are infected through homosexual or bisexual contact.
Ans: Although the risk of HIV transmission through oral sex is far lower than that through anal sex, it is possible you become infected through giving or receiving oral sex (i.e. fellatio and rimming). The risk is higher through giving oral sex with the sex partner cumming (ejaculating) in your mouth, followed in order by giving oral sex without the sex partner cumming, and simply receiving oral sex including being blown and rimmed. The factors that cause an increase in the risk of HIV transmission include a high viral load, presence of mouth ulcers, bleeding gums, genital sores, and of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
Besides, other infections can be transmitted through oral sex. These include syphilis, gonorrhoea, herpes, warts, hepatitis A and B.
Ans: No. These body fluids do not contain enough virus to infect other persons. The body fluids which can transmit HIV are blood, semen (including pre-cum), rectal and vaginal secretions.
You cannot get HIV through casual or day-to-day contact, including a kiss on the cheek, sharing meals, or sitting on toilet seats. Besides, there is no evidence to show that mosquitoes can transmit HIV.
Ans: HIV can be transmitted by sharing injection or snorting equipment. Moreover, the effects of recreational drugs can increase your risk for HIV infection. Being drunk or high affects your ability to make safe choices and lowers your inhibitions, which may lead you to do something like having sex without condoms or having more rough sex, which you are less likely to when sober. For example, methamphetamine (meth, ice) is a very addictive stimulant and hence an HIV risk factor, it is observed there is a strong link between meth use and HIV transmission among gay and bisexual men.
Ans: A conventional HIV test (blood taking from vein) takes around 1 week for the result, whereas a rapid test (finger prick) only requires 20-30 minutes but the latter is only a screening test.
Ans:HIV self-testing is a process by which a person who wants to know his or her HIV status collects a specimen, performs a test and interprets the test result in private. It does not provide a definitive diagnosis. Any positive HIV result must be confirmed by laboratory-based testing with a venous blood sample. By providing an opportunity for people to test themselves discreetly and conveniently, HIV self-testing may provide people who are not currently reached by existing HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) services with information about their HIV status.
In Hong Kong, there is currently no legislation that regulates the manufacture, import, export, sale and use of medical devices (including HIV self-test kits). However, users are able to purchase self-test kits either over-the-counter in pharmacies or through various online platforms. Users should purchase self-test kits, if they choose to do so, from reliable sources; and test kits with either CE approval, FDA approval or prequalified by WHO are preferred.
Ans: Yes. This is called HIV superinfection. The new strain of HIV can replace the original strain or remain along with the original strain. Its effects differ from person to person. For some people, superinfection may cause them to get sicker faster because they become infected with a new strain of the virus that is resistant to the medicines they are currently taking to treat their original HIV infection.
Ans: No. Your HIV test result reveals only your HIV status. HIV is not necessarily transmitted every time you have sex. Therefore, taking an HIV test is not a definitive way to find out if your partner is infected. Discuss with your partner about whether he has been tested before and about his risk behaviours now and in the past. Consider getting tested together.
Ans: Advances in HIV treatment have led to a greatly improved survival of infected patients, especially when the diagnosis is made early. There is evidence that HIV treatment contributes significantly to the prevention of onward transmission via sexual contact and other transmission routes.
What you have to do is to:
A total of 93 additional HIV new cases were reported to the Department of Health in the second quarter of 2023. Among them, 39 cases (41.9%) acquired the infection via homosexual or bisexual route.
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